The line of authority offers a standing channel for downward and upward communication. In these organizations the activities are routine, the technological process is complex and not easy to change, there is a high level of standardization and specialization, and more hierarchy levels in the organization structure having a high level of formalization and routine distribution channels. The span of control should be limited to a reasonable number according to circumstances. The organisation is a mechanism to achieve the goals. Empowerment may be defined as “according official authority or legal power to a person to perform a task independently with strength and confidence on his/her own initiative”. Organizing is the function of management that involves developing an organizational structure and allocating human resources to ensure the accomplishment of objectives. The relationship between different jobs is determined, and provision for their proper integration is made. The structure of the organization is the framework within which effort is coordinated. Because of this, empowerment has become slow. Namely, when the organization grows up, its organization structure becomes more complex, and vice versa. Grouping must ensure that each supervisor and manager is not over burdened with subordinates. Effective and efficient management of the organisations are expected throughout their life. If delegation of authority is not carefully done, the very existence of the organisation is in danger and chaos and confusion may be raised. The delegation authority to take steps to complete the assigned part of the job is next step in organization. Supposing, two or more units are functioning and the command is to be given to both units from one unit officer. 3 ALLEN defines “Organizing “ is the process of identifying and grouping the work to be performed defining and delegating resposibility and authority and establishing relationship for the purpose of enabling people to work most effectively together in accomplishing objectives”. Good organisation results in the creation of well balanced, low-cost, teamwork that performs the necessary work. As a structure of relationship organisation can be of two types – firstly formal organisation, and secondly, informal organisation. Organisations are realising that tighter controls, greater pressures more clearly defined jobs and tighter supervisions as found in delegation may not work fully to achieve goals. When people perform tasks assigned to them at different levels in different departments, it has to be ensured that the tasks are related to each other and aim at unified goals. The organizing function leads to an organizational structure which defines precisely the authorities and the responsibilities. – William Spriegel, “Organising is the establishing of effective authority relationships among selected work, persons and work places in order for a group to work together efficiently”. Employees are given recognition and are motivated to work harder by encouraging their participation. This means, he will not be able to produce satisfactory results, the concept of span of management has a significant influence on the overall performance of an enterprise and hence its importance has been recognised by modern management experts. It also helps to define authority and responsibility attached to each position/person. Efficiency means speed, accuracy and low cost. Mrs Aust's Grade 12 Business management class.By Kyle Taylor A span of control of six subordinates has been considered to be the most desirable. Organizing is highly complex and often involves a systematic review of human resources, finances, and priorities. Varieties of templates showing different structures have been designed. It permits maximum use of its human resources and their talents. : Given by Stephen P. Robbins and Mary Coulter, Louis A. Allen. It requires the efficient use of resources combined with the guidance of people in order to reach a specific organizational objective. Organizing is the function of management which follows planning. 1922 Max Weber. This video covers the concept and process of organizing. Delegation of authority and decentralisation of authority mean the same process. When organizing, managers must keep these limits in mind. Principle of Commensurate Authority and Responsibility: According to this principle when an individual is responsible for a certain task, he should be given the authority to carry out that task. The structure of an organisation must be flexible so that adjustments necessitated by changed circumstances may be planned and incorporated in it. Organizing function follows the planning function. 4. Create your account. This helps in avoiding conflict in command and in fixing responsibility. It should pass through the unit head of another unit except under permitted circumstances. Size – Connection between the size of the organization (measured by the number of employees, power of installed capacities, total revenue, value of capital investment, and other factors) and its organizational structure is very easy to notice. It cannot be constituted by one person. It helps the management by providing information about the duties, responsibilities, authority, positions, and jobs. This concept is also extended to designing an organisational structure keeping any one of the types of structure shown in the template. 3. That is activities are unified and harmonized. The organizing function of management is concerned with combining people, work to be done, and physical resources into a meaningful relationship to achieve organizational goals. It can serve to re-energise recollective spirit and focuses on out performing our competitors while looking for better to live together. – Louis Allen, “To organise a business is to provide it with everything useful to its functioning: raw materials, machines and tools, capital and personnel”. The geographic structure furnishes a training ground to develop general management abilities. While designing the structure, certain other issues are considered. The organization which has taken the time, energy, and money to develop quality plans needs management who understand the importance of organizing. There is a limit to the number of subordinates which a manager can manage effectively. The activities which are similar in nature can be grouped as one and a separate department can be created. The concept which was originated in military operations, is extended to organisations. This structure of relationships also facilitates the delegation. “Decentralisation” means the transfer of authority and responsibility for smooth functioning of organisational activities. Establishing relationship – This is a very important part of the organizing function since each employee in the organisation is to know as to whom to report and which are the employee who are to work with him. The facilities and employees may become so specialized to solve the needs of the customers that they cannot be used for any other purpose. Thus, chain of command, which is practiced in military structure is extended to organisations. Our analyses is made in the context of organisations. We need to challenge the assumption that someone is a good manager just because … Learn about: 1. To this end, an organisation has to adopt adequate methods to ensure that there is proper coordination of the different activities performed at various work points. Not only the objectives be stated in clear terms, the method of achieving them too, should be indicated in detail and in precise terms so that the organisers may know the type of organisation that is needed. Specialisation in organisational functions is necessary for the most effective attainment of objectives. It involves responsibility to achieve the objectives and to fulfill specific organizational purposes through economical and effective planning and regulation. The organisation is expected to provide build-in devices to facilitate growth and expansion without dislocation. It is a continuous chain of authority that links the most junior worker to the top brass. The flow of authorization from the top level to the bottom level enables the managers to understand their positions of authority and this helps in an effective organization. Organizing, is the management function that follows after planning, it involves the assignment of tasks, the grouping of tasks into departments and the assignment of authority with adequate responsibility and allocation of resources across the organization to achieve common goals. to the lowest level of the organisation at which the particular responsibility can be efficiently discharged. This helps in preventing lack of communication and feedback and also brings about quick response. The maximum number of employees or subordinates that can be supervised effectively by a person is known as the span of control. It may be applied to any type of organisation including the government. In addition to the above, it becomes possible through organizing to provide for the optimum use of technical and human resources. The basic elements of organising are as follows: It means dividing the work into specific tasks with deadlines to their completion. Under this various posts are created or established and the mutual relationship of employees working on various posts, their authorities and responsibilities are defined. Technology includes technical equipment for manufacturing, knowledge and ability for using the equipment, and working activity necessary for the transformation process. All Rights Reserved © 2019, Design & Developed By: Star Web Maker. The term ‘span of management’ is also referred to as span of control, span of supervision, span of authority or span of responsibility. Organising as a Structure of Relationship: Steps: Determination of Objectives, Enumeration of Activities, Classification of Activities and a Few Others, What is Organizing in Management? The rule is right peg in a right hole. The first approach is the functional approach. Principles of supervision or span of control – The principle states that the span of control shows the number of employees that a single manager can handle and control efficiently. The national sector could further be divided into north zone, south zone, east zone and west zone. It is referred in the name of the organization such as- Royal Industries, Tata Consultancy Services etc. The channels of communication may be formal, informal, downward, upward or horizontal. Another possibility in this approach is the overspecialization. Organisation structure must encourage management development programmes and ensure optimum use of human resources. This grouping process is called departmentation. Geographic Departmentation (Grouping Activities on the Basis of Territory): If the customers are geographically dispersed, jobs can be grouped on the basis of geographical locations. The responsibility of higher authority for the acts of his subordinates is absolute. He cannot escape responsibility by saying that mistake was committed by a particular worker. The organizing begins after the plans are prepared and is governed by the prepared plans. The leader need not be present during the course of performing the task as in case of delegation. It helps in developing a proper organization structure and the extent and nature of decentralisation can be determined. 1. Further in each department the activities can be further subdivided into various specific jobs. The principle of unity of direction which calls for the establishment of one authority figure for each designated task of the organization is achieved. 2. However, there are certain principles which have more or less universal application and which may be used as guidelines for organising business concern. Granting authority – On the basis of specific responsibilities given to individual employees, they are to be provided with the necessary authority for the discharge of the assigned responsibilities in order to ensure their effective performance and in turn the performance of the organization. In such situations, cost-benefit analysis can be independently made. The third approach is the production line approach. Two aspects of an organisational social system are the formal or official and the informal or unofficial. Management Skills are important to lead a team and drive the organization in the right direction. Organization management gives a sense of direction to the employees. The organisation structure should enable the enterprise to attain objectives with the lowest possible cost. For example, the organisation structure of a company can reflect its operations in two broad geographic areas – the national sector and the international sector. He divides the whole work into a number of activities and groups then on the basis of their similarity and thus he creates a number of departments. In decentralisation, decision-making process is dispersed or deregularised. The major disadvantage is similar to the geographic approach which is the additional cost through duplication of the functions within each product line. – G. R. Terry. Responsibility to perform a task, is given to a subordinate by the supervisor and the subordinate commits mistake, in such situation the supervisor is answerable to his superiors. Share Your Word File The types, include, political, administrative, fiscal and organisational. Basics 10. Organising can be defined as a process that initiates implementation of plans by clarifying jobs, working relationships and effectively deploying resources for attainment of identified and desired results (goals). 46 Organizing . By repeating a small part of work the individual acquires speed and accuracy in its performance. Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge In these organizations the working process is continual in a certain production cycle, the operations and procedures are synchronized, the production is highly automated, technical complexity is at the highest level, centralization is low, communicating is verbal, and formalization is on a low level. The delegation is the process through which they are tied together by establishing relationship between them for co-operative and integrated action. Concepts 4. It is the process of establishing orderly uses for all resources within the management system of the organization. When people are empowered, they will be able to take ownership of the task that they have to perform. The benefits of the organizing function are as follows. The word “organizing” refers to a process of a managerial function. An individual will accomplish a task in a given period only when the responsibility for that task is fixed upon him. Vertical aggregating with formal authority and horizontal aggregating, as its complement, is a way of achieving internal and external efficiency of an integral totality. c. Time should be set to complete the task. A manager’s ability to manage a large number of subordinates is limited by his time and energy. However, if spans become too wi… Management implies an orderly way of thinking. Functional departmentalization can be used in all types of organisations. It, thus, leads to specialization and increasing employees’ efficiency. In the organisational context, it means that the commands or orders flow from the top down the line to last worker of the organisation. Hence, a manager always has to organize in order to get results. The nature of organising is discussed below: According to Fayol, work of all kinds must be sub-divided and assigned to a number of persons. It should be flexible and adaptable to the changing objectives of enterprise. They have to be considered for organisational effectiveness. Organisation is a system which helps in creating meaningful relationship among persons both vertical and horizontal. ORGANIZING 1/8/2012 Organizing is the process of arranging and allocating POM/Chapter 4 - Organizing work, authority, and resources among an organization’s members so that they can achieve organizational goal. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. In case of organizing, it decides on ways and means through which it becomes easier to achieve what has been planned. Organising constitutes an essential element in the main process of management. The fourth approach is the customer approach which groups activities and resources in response to the needs of specific customer groups. 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